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  1. 4 points

    Listening to new 5.25" mids

    Mike, I appreciate your answer and want to definitely add that I am not interested in trade secrets at all or anything specific. What I am curious of is what in general was done to specifically improve the drivers capability for the bolded sentence above. I believe I have answered all of this before, but I will one last time! It is a combination of cone weight being changed, dust cap mass, surround and spider weight changes, voice coil gap, and voice coil wire gauge and number of wraps and length of coil, which all add different factors to improve the sound, dynamics, low bass, and mid-range. The two obvious changes are that we are using a butyl rubber surround and a hard fiber dust cap instead of the treated foam surround and foam dust cap.(these make a change in performance by themselves) It is all about the combination of the different materials and how they are combined, as said before, you can combine the same group of materials in different ways to come up with a near endless amount of sound variations. I am not giving up any more information than that on the specific weighting of the cone, spider, surround, dustcap, former, voice coil or gap, amount of voice coil overhang, top plate thickness, pole piece extension, these are what make the difference in the new Blues versus the old Blues. ALL of these things were changed from the old to the new, even though the cosmetics are nearly identical. The crossover and compensation play a considerable role in the "SYSTEM" working together as good as it does. The is no one piece that makes the difference. I think Colonel Sanders "Secret Recipe" is still in a vault, those seven herbs and spices in JUST that special way is what makes his product unique too! Along with what makes Coca Cola "Coke" and Pepsi, Pepsi! I will call and see if there is any room in any of their vaults for my recipe. We are updating the Blues site with more information soon, we always said it was a work in progress, and only put it up to get preliminary information out on the product with the promise that as we had time we would improve it. It is more important to get the product designed and produced for the people already wanting it, than to fret that every spec is on the site for the few that want it. We will have all the specs that we are going to give out on the site, posted with in the next few weeks. We have been working on it. If anyone had wanted anything more specific than what we had so far, all they had to do was call and ask. I would have given them what we have planned to put on the site, but guess what, my phone has never rang with anyone asking for more specifics. It's not a matter of not having the specs, or not wanting to give them out, just the time to write code to add it to the site. On top of that, specs don't tell how a speaker sounds, there are other intangable effects that can't be put into a number that effect the way a speaker sounds. Numbers are a good starting point in design and can provide a direction to correct issues with response, phase angle or impedance, but they do not have total determination over whether the speaker sounds bad, good, or great. Numbers can direct you on the enclosure type and size, but again don't tell the whole story. Only a human ear can make the final judgement on whether a speaker has the sound the listener wants. Yes, this is subjective, but this is the way product is purchased by most people, to go in and listen to what you are buying, not what a number or a computer says. The more subjective listeners that listen and like and purchase a product determine the success of a product much more than a number on a piece of paper.
  2. 3 points
    Another great read that I felt was worth having here also: Anatomy of the Power Amplifier Dissecting the Modern Audio Power Amplifier and Power Supply By Robert Zeff With the Proliferation of Different Amp Types, Which is the One for You? In the past we had essentially two types of amplifiers to choose from: Class "AB" and class "A". Today we have AB, A, D, G, H, & T, in addition to some that do not have a class name. New technology brought down the size and price while improving performance and efficiency. We'll review the various topologies of the modern amplifier, spending extra time on the aspect of efficiency (as the quest for smaller, more efficient designs have spawned the class D, G, H, & T designs). We'll also try to dispel some of the misconceptions and folklore that seem to surround amp design. Amplifiers require circuitry for short and thermal protection, fan control, turn on delay, and over voltage protection. In the past we littered the designs with dozens of components to handle these events. Today we can use a single microprocessor to handle all of this in addition to having many more features without additional cost. The microprocessor can monitor the battery voltage, internal voltages, temperature, control volume and crossovers, and drive external displays. These embedded computer chips also allow features like compression and power limiting with little added cost. Of course, what is an amplifier without a power supply? First we'll visit the power supply designs, as every amplifier needs one. The Power Supply The purpose of the supply is to convert the auto's battery voltage to a higher voltage. For example, if an amplifier is to produce 100 watts into a 4 ohm speaker, we need 20 volts RMS. This implies that we need about +/-28 volts. (20 volts R.M.S. = 28.28 volts peak). We call that the "rail" voltage. Since the amplifier's output transistors cannot pull all the way up to this rail, we actually need a slightly higher voltage. The process is to convert the 12 volts DC into AC, feed it to a transformer and convert it back to DC again. Converting the 12 volt battery voltage to AC is simple, a PWM (pulse width modulator) IC feeds a bank of MOSFETS (MOSFETs are switching transistors perfectly suited for this task). The 12 volt power is switched at a very high frequency, somewhere between 40 and 150 kHz. Slower switching speeds require a larger transformer, but high speeds have more switching loss. Advanced transformer core materials, faster rectifiers, and clever winding methods have enabled us to utilize very high frequencies. Some of today's better amplifiers have very small power supplies that produce enormous amounts of power. Regulated Power Supplies Most early audio amplifiers contained unregulated power supplies. Regulated supplies require very high quality filter capacitors (called "low ESR" capacitors), output chokes, and an optically isolated voltage feedback circuit. Regulation occurs by controlling the switching pulse width from 0 - 100% to compensate for changes in the battery and rail voltage. The same action occurs when the audio level increases. As the amplifier draws more power from the supply, the rail voltage drops. Again, the regulator circuitry senses this drop and responds with an increased pulse width. The high frequency PWM waveform is rectified (converted to DC) and applied to the output filter choke and capacitors. This output of this circuit is the + and - DC rails that feed the power amplifier. Unregulated Power Supplies Unregulated power supplies are less expensive than regulated supplies. They do not require an output choke, voltage sense or isolation circuitry. Because the duty cycle is nearly 100%, capacitor ripple current is much lower in unregulated supplies. Lower ripple current requires less expensive capacitors throughout. Often we hear that unregulated designs have more "headroom". That means that the amplifier will produce extra power during transients. Most home audio amplifiers employ unregulated power supplies. The power supplies in these amplifiers run at 60 Hz, thus the filter capacitors must be 200-500 times larger than those used in high frequency switchers. The extra capacitance in home audio amplifiers results in extra headroom. Headroom for anything other than very short transients simply doesn't exist in the unregulated designs. The following is an example of specifications for an unregulated vs. regulated amplifiers. Unregulated designs have a higher supply voltage at low power, causing higher voltage on the output transistors. This reduces the amplifier's efficiency. Small amplifiers (less than 100 watts) cannot justify the extra cost of the regulation circuitry, so we often see unregulated supplies in these amplifiers. Pros and Cons of Regulated / Unregulated SuppliesSome designers try to keep their supplies regulated down to battery voltages as low as 9.5 volts. The supply compensates by increasing the current. The following table shows voltage and currents for a 500 watt over-regulated amplifier operating at full power. The current increases dramatically at the lower voltages. Because of higher currents at the lower voltages, the supply efficiency drops further, requiring even more current. At higher voltages, the pulse width reduces, causing increased ripple current. This high current creates heat in the filter capacitors and can destroy the capacitor's electrolyte. Some manufacturers do not use capacitors of sufficient quality for this range of regulation. These amplifiers may not perform up to specification just one year after installation. Also, the extra current at low voltages is extra hard on a battery that is already suffering! So, we recommend that amplifiers stay in regulation down to about 11 - 11.5 volts. Any properly working charging system can easily keep the battery voltage well above this. The Amplifier Section, Class AB and AClass AB and A amplifiers are similar, so we'll discuss both here. Class AB amplifiers have transistors that pull up to the positive rail and transistors that pull down to the negative rail. This corresponds to the action of pushing the speaker cone out and in. Class AB means that the output transistors do not always have current on them. For example, when the upper transistors are pulling up towards the positive rail (pushing the speaker out), there is no current in the lower transistors. When the output signal swings through zero, towards the negative rail, the output transistor must go through a transition from zero current to a non-zero current. The best analogy that I can think of is driving an old car with too much slop in the steering. As you go from one side of the road's crown to the other, the steering crosses a "dead" zone, and you tend to over-steer. Special temperature compensated bias circuitry reduces this dead zone, known as notch distortion. The figure below shows the output of a class AB amplifier with too little bias and the resulting distortion. Notch distortion increases at higher frequencies and low volume levels. Some modern designs have reduced this type of distortion to very low levels. Class A means that every transistor is always conducting current. They are very similar to class AB amplifiers, but the bias circuitry is set so that there are very high currents in the output transistors. Because these amplifiers do not have this "dead zone', less feedback is required to achieve low distortion. A 100 watt amplifier may dissipate nearly 100 watts internally even when there is no audio output. This type of design is impractical in the harsh auto environment. Many class A amplifiers pedaled for the automotive market are not really class A. They are huge power wasters in the home as well. Input and Driver Stages The amplifier works this way: A small audio signal is presented to the amplifier's input. Transistors are not linear, which means that the input signal will distort somewhat as it passes through the various amplifier stages. To correct this distortion, a portion of the output is compared with the input. The difference creates a correction signal reducing this distortion. The input stage is a special type, called "differential". It has a + and a - input because it must accept both the audio input and the input from the feedback circuitry. Excess feedback can lower distortion dramatically, but cause instability. Careful design rules must be followed to avoid this instability. The output of the input stage feeds into the driver stage. The driver stage may use one, two, or three devices. Often this circuitry is referred to "Darlington", or "Triple Darlington". The driver circuit feeds the output stage, which may have two, four, six, or more transistors. The more output transistors, the better. Multiple output devices reduce distortion (requiring less negative feedback) and improve reliability. Bipolar or MOSFET? We have seen both MOSFET (Metal Oxide Silicon Field Effect Transistor) and Bipolar transistors used in audio amplifiers. Claims have been made that each is superior. I have seen claims that MOSFETs have a tube ("Valve" for the Brits) sound. This is more folklore. The musicians and their instruments are supposed to have "the sound", not audio equipment! MOSFETs are tougher than Bipolars, and can pull closer to the supply rail. It takes more Bipolar transistors to achieve the same power as a MOSFET, therefore Bipolar amps tend to be more expensive. But, MOSFETs are very non-linear, compared to Bipolars and require much more feedback to achieve reasonable distortion numbers. They are a great choice for bass amps, as low frequency audio is not difficult for a MOSFET. The most expensive car and home amplifiers almost always use Bipolar transistors. Efficiency What makes an amplifier get hot? Both the power supply and the power amplifier generate heat. The maximum efficiency of the power supply is nearly 100%. Good power supply designs, with the highest quality components approach 85%. The class AB amplifier efficiency at full power can approach 75%. The total efficiency, including the power supply, can be about 65%. But, efficiency drops at lower power and can typically be under 20%. A class AB amplifier actually runs cooler at full power than it does at half power. Run this amplifier into clipping and it might run even cooler! Where is all this power going? The output transistor is basically a large variable resistor. If the instantaneous output voltage should be 40 volts and the power supply is 100 volts, then 60 volts must be "wasted" in the output transistors. Driving a reactive load (like a speaker) causes the efficiency to drop ever further. This brings us to the other audio classes designed to improve efficiency. Class D First, let's dispel another myth: Class D does not stand for digital. The input is converted to a two-state (binary) representation of the audio waveform. That's where the similarity ends. This distinction is important because class D doesn't provide the benefits normally associated with digital components. That being said, class D designs dramatically improve efficiency. Instead of wasting power in the output transistor, the output is switched at a very high frequency between the positive and negative supply rails. If the output is to be zero, then the waveform is at a 50% duty cycle. If the output is to be a positive voltage, then the duty cycle would be greater than 50%. Because the output devices are either completely turned on (no wasted voltage) or completely turned off, theoretically efficiency is 100%. So the audio input must be converted to a pulse width modulated waveform (PWM). The yellow trace below is the output of the amplifier; the blue trace is the PWM waveform. The blue waveform is fed to an output filter, which results in the yellow output waveform. Notice that the output looks somewhat distorted. All of the switching noise and distortion cannot be removed and the result can be seen here. Because of this process of converting the input signal to PWM and converting back to analog, a good deal of distortion is introduced. Conventional feedback like that used in class AB designs is used in these amplifiers to reduce distortion. MOSFETs are the only choice for class D designs. Most class D designs are useful only for bass amps as they can not switch fast enough to reproduce high frequencies. Some high quality, full range class D designs exist for pro audio, but they are complex with multi-phased outputs. Class T Class T (Tripath) is similar to class D with these exceptions: This class does not use analog feed back like its class D cousin. The feedback is digital and is taken ahead of the output filter, avoiding the phase shift of this filter. Because class D or T amplifier distortion arises from timing errors, the class T amplifier feeds back timing information. The other distinction is that this amplifier uses a digital signal processor to convert the analog input to a PWM signal and process the feedback information. The processor looks at the feedback information and makes timing adjustments. Because the feedback loop does not include the output filter, the class T amplifier is inherently more stable and can operate over the full audio band. Most listeners can not hear the difference between class T and good class AB designs. Both class D and T designs share one problem: they consume extra power at idle. Because the high frequency waveform is present at all times, even when there is no audio present, the amplifiers generate some residual heat. Some of these amplifiers actually turn off in the absence of music, and can be annoying if there is too much delay turning back on. Class G Class G improves efficiency in another way: an ordinary class AB amplifier is driven by a multi-rail power supply. A 500 watt amplifier might have three positive rails and three negative rails. The rail voltages might be 70 volts, 50 volts, and 25 volts. As the output of the amplifier moves close to 25 volts, the supply is switched the 50 volt rail. As the output moves close to the 50 volt rail, the supply is switched to the 70 volt rail. These designs are sometimes called "Rail Switchers". This design improves efficiency by reducing the "wasted" voltage on the output transistors. This voltage is the difference between the positive (red) supply and the audio output (blue). Class G can be as efficient as class D or T. While a class G design is more complex, it is based on a class AB amplifier and can have the same clean characteristics as well. Class H Class H is similar to class G, except the rail voltage is modulated by the input signal. The power supply rail is always just a bit higher than the output signal, keeping the voltage across the transistors small and the output transistors cool. The modulating power supply rail voltage is created by similar circuitry that you would find in a class D amplifier. In terms of complexity, this type of amplifier could be thought of as a class D amplifier driving a class AB amplifier and is therefore fairly complex. How to Choose? Regulated or unregulated? Class AB, D, or T?If you're really into a lot of bass, the class D or T may be for you as these amplifiers will produce the highest SPL with the smallest size. If you just want to wake the neighbors, blur your vision, or make a big splash in SPL contests, maybe you just need one of the inexpensive, powerful, & dirty class D designs. Want the cleanest high frequencies? Maybe a good class AB amp would be your selection. Whatever you choose, I hope this information helps you achieve the sound you're looking for! >> Click here for images and diagrams too <<
  3. 3 points
    Mike Flanagan

    Listening to new 5.25" mids

    Ok, help me out. What objective answers are you wanting? Im not an engineer and have never professed to be. But from reading your posts on other sites, neither are you. That being said, I do notice that you have some sort of animosity toward Ray, Randall, Richard, Johny and least of all me because of our association with Linear Power/Blues. Im sorry you feel that way but the one thing you need to understand is we dont put up with that tone that I've seen you have on other sites (like the name calling, or putting people down because they need help or have an opinion about a certain product) on this site! We are laid back and enjoy having chats about SQ and our vehicles. Thats it! If you dont like that, there are plenty of other sites that will suit your need to start unending arguments (you should know this, Ive seen plenty of the arguments you've started!). As for objective answers, I think youve gotten all the answers your gonna get until you go buy a set of Blues Speakers yourself! Then you can get all the objectiveness you can handle! I dont know of any other speaker manufacturer that puts out any and every detail on changes made to their speakers nor Every reason for those changes nor ALL of the specifications regarding those changes. Why should you expect those from Blues? Plus EVERY speaker company claims to have the BEST sounding speaker so why would you go out of your way to pick on Ray and Blues? Those are some objective answers I would like to have!
  4. 3 points

    Listening to new 5.25" mids

    That is one part of it, Rick. The crossover is not as simple as some think to build a one way 12 db crossover with full compensation, there is a lot of reaction between the different sections and to tune it well takes many test combinations. If you look at (the screen shots of the graphs on the website) the phase angle of the component system it is VERY flat and sits on zero degrees mainly, not many speaker systems will do that, nor will they have such a flat impedance curve(the curve sits basically on 3 ohms for most of the bandwidth until it encounters the low freq rise of the woofer). Most passive systems but some type of "dirty" impedance loads (low impedance drop outs or dips) on the amplifier somewhere in the audio bandwidth. These impedance dips can cause amplifiers to heat up, thermally protect, or damage outputs. Other things they do it cause dips and peaks in the frequency response since the amplifier will produce more power at the frequencies where these dips in impedance occur and less power where the impedance rises. These crossvers do not do that when combined with the matching speaker system. Of course its not all in the crossovers either, it is in the materials used in the speakers and how they are used. different cone weightings, spider and surround weighting combinations, voice coil lengths, wire gauge sizes, size of magnetic gap, top plate thickness, The new Blues speakers have almost identical outside cosmetic looks of the old Blues speakers, but they are different in a lot of other ways that are not visible. It is a speaker SYSTEM and must be treated as that, the individual components will work well by themselves but work great as a complete system. It's like when you walk into Waffle House and they have the sign on the wall saying there are 1,082,000 ways to have your hamburger and hashbrowns, there are many different weightings of cone materials, surounds,and spiders which all look the same cosmetically, combine those with the different options of top plate thickness, voice coil lengths, and wire gauge sizes and you could make 100 (and still many more) of the same size speaker which ALL LOOK THE SAME but all sound different. It is a balancing act to get a speaker system to sound really good, handle a decent amount of power well, and do it efficiently, and that is no easy task as some would make it out to be.
  5. 2 points
    Aaron Clinton

    Basic Audio Terminology

    Something I found and is worth having here: A: A: Attenuation, loss of dB. AC (Alternating Current): An electrical current that periodically changes in magnitude and direction. Acoustic Fiberglass: Thin fiberglass material used as damping material inside speaker enclosures. Acoustics: The science or study of sound. Air Gap: The space between the top plate and the pole piece. This is where the voice coil sits. Alignment: A class of enclosure parameters that provides optimum performance for a woofer with a given value of Q. Alpha: In sealed enclosure designs, the ratio of Vas to Vb, where Vb is the volume of the box you will build. Alternator: A device that is turned by a motor to produce AC voltage, which is then rectified (turned into DC) and used to supply voltage to the vehicle's electrical system. Ampere (A): The unit of measurement for electrical current in coulombs per second. There is one ampere in a circuit that has a one ohm resistance when one volt is applied to the circuit. Amplifier: An electrical circuit designed to increase the current, voltage, or power of an applied signal. Amplitude: The relative strength (usually voltage of a signal). Amplitude can be expressed as either a negative or positive number, depending on the signals being compared. Attenuation: The reduction, typically by some controlled amount, of an electrical signal. Audio Frequency: The acoustic spectrum of human hearing, generally regarded to be between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. B: B: Magnet flux density in gap. Baffle: A board or other plane surface used to mount a loudspeaker. Balance: Equal strength provided to both left and right stereo channels. Bandwidth: The range of frequencies covered by a driver or a network (crossover). Band-Pass Enclosure: Type of enclosure used for sub woofers where the driver is completely inside the enclosure and all of the output emerges through a port(s) on one of the sides. They are difficult to calculate for optimum performance. Band-Pass Filter: An electric circuit designed to pass only a certain range of frequencies. Basket: The metal frame of a speaker. Bass Blockers: First order high-pass crossover (non-polarized capacitors), generally used on mid-bass or dash speakers to keep them from trying to reproduce deep bass which could damage them at high playing levels. Bass Frequencies (Low Frequencies): The low end of the audio frequency spectrum. There are no real frequencies where bass is categorized, but it ranges from approximately below 20 Hz to 400 Hz. Bi-amping: Means that instead of driving a speaker full-range with a single channel of amplification, through a single set of speaker cables, you actually connect two sets of cables, with each set driven by a separate amplifier, or separate channels of a multi-channel amplifier. This way, low frequencies and high frequencies each receive dedicated amplification. Bi-wiring: Involves connecting two sets of cables to your speakers, like bi-amping, but both sets of cables connect to the same set of output connectors on your receiver or amplifier. Bi-wiring doesn't deliver more watts to your speakers, so it doesn't offer the dramatic sonic improvement and higher loudness capability of bi-amping. BI: Electro-magnetic force factor. BL: Driver motor strength. Boomy: The smearing of transients that makes bass reproduction sound muddled, usually because of improperly designed sealed (too small), ported (to small or tuned improperly), and band-pass enclosures, although the latter are sometimes designed this way on purpose by car audio manufacturers or install shops to be loud. Bridged: In a multi-channel amplifier, the connection of two channels to drive a single load. The input signal is split, and then the phase of one of the signals is inverted. The non inverted signal is sent to the left amplifier and the inverted signal is sent to the right amplifier (L+R-). The load is connected between the two outputs so it receives twice the voltage at a given input level. The resultant power is much greater than the two 4-ohm channels combined. C: C: Propagation velocity of sound at STP, approx. 342 m/s (meters per second). Cab: Acoustic compliance of air in an enclosure. Cabin Gain: The low frequency boost normally obtained inside a vehicle interior when subs are properly mounted. Capacitor: An electronic device, which stores energy and releases it when needed. Also used to direct high frequency energy to tweeters. (Rated in Farads) Cas: Acoustical equivalent of Cms. Center Channel: In home theater, sound decoded from the stereo signal sent to a speaker mounted in front of the listener. Specially designed to enhance voices and sound effects from a movie soundtrack or other audio recording with enhanced features. Used in car audio to help offset skewed stereo imaging due to seating positions in the automotive environment. Channel: The path an audio signal travels through in a circuit during playback. At least 2 channels are required for stereo sound. Circuit: A complete path that allows electrical current from one terminal of voltage source to the other terminal. Circuit Breaker: An electromechanical device designed to quickly break its electrical connection should a short circuit or overload occur. A circuit breaker is similar to a fuse, except it will rest itself or can be manually rested, and will again conduct electricity. Class A: The amplifier conducts current throughout the entire cycle (360). The Class A design is the most inefficient and is used in low-power applications as well as in very high-end stereo. Such devices may be as little as 15% efficient, with 85% of the energy wasted as heat. Class B: The current flows only 180¼ for half the cycle, or two transistors can be used in a push-pull fashion, each one operating for 180¼. More efficient than Class A, it is typically used in low-end products. Class AB: Combines Class A and B and current flows for 180¼ to 200¼. Class AB designs are the most widely used for audio applications. Class AB amplifiers are typically about 50% efficient. Class C: Operating for less than half of one wave cycle (100¼ to 150¼), Class C amplifiers are the most efficient, but not used for audio applications because of their excessive distortion. Class G: A variation of the Class AB design that improves efficiency by switching to different fixed voltages as the signal approaches them. Class H: An enhancement of the Class G amplifier in which the power supply voltage is modulated and always slightly higher than the input signal. Class D: Class D is a digital-like amplifier that works by turning a transistor fully on or off, but the "D" technically does not stand for digital. Definition of: Class D amplifier An audio amplifier that works in the digital domain. It generates the equivalent analog output for the speakers by using pulse width modulation (PWM) or pulse density modulation (PDM) rather than the traditional digital-to-analog conversion. See PWM and PDM. Less Heat than Analog: Because pulse modulation output signals are either on or off, Class D amplifiers produce far less heat than analog amplifiers. Reaching efficiencies greater than 90% compared to only 50% for analog, they are widely used for every amplification requirement from cellphone speakers to high-end stereos. Digital and Analog: Class D was not coined for "digital;" it was the next letter after Class C. However, it does produce a "digital-like" output because the signals are generated by turning a switch fully on or off. But it is not technically digital because the output is not digital data. It is a modulated audio signal that is feeding analog speakers and is equivalent to the output of a traditional analog amplifier. Some call this a "synthesized analog" output. See amplifier classes. Class T: A variation of the Class D technique from Tri-path. Class T modulates the pulses based on the individual characteristics of the output transistor Clipping: The distortion that occurs when a power amplifier is overdriven. This can be seen visually on an oscilloscope, when the peaks of a waveform are flattened, or "clipped" at the signal's ceiling. Cmes: The electrical capacitive equivalent of Mms. Cms: Mechanical suspension compliance of a driver consisting of the spider and surround. Coaxial Driver: A speaker composed of two individual voice coils and cones; used for reproduction of sounds in two segments of the sound spectrum. Usually used in automotive speakers. Compliance: The relative stiffness of a speaker suspension, specified as Vas. Cone: The cone-shaped diaphragm of a speaker attached to the voice coil, which produces pulses of air that the ear detects as sound. Some subs are now made with flat pistons instead of a cone shape. Coulomb: An amount of electrical charge, which contains 6.24 x 10^18 of electrons. Crossover Frequency: The frequency at which a driver is crossed over at, usually when response is down -3dB. Current (I): The flow of electrical charge measured in amperes. D: D: Effective diameter of driver. Daisy Chain: The wiring of multiple amplifiers together using the line out wiring options on the amps. Damping: The reduction of movement of a speaker cone, due to either the electromechanical characteristics of the speaker driver and suspension, the effects of frictional losses inside a speaker enclosure, and/or by electrical means. Damping Material: Any material added to the interior of a speaker enclosure to absorb sound and reduce out-of-phase reflection to the driver diaphragm (cone). Usually acoustic fiberglass, Polyester batting, or poly-fill is used in speaker enclosures. DC (Direct Current): A flow of electrons, which travels in one direction only. Delay: The amount of time, usually in milliseconds (ms), that a signal processing unit adds to a channel of music. This is usually used to delay the rear channels with respect to the front channels to give a sense of greater space.Decibel (dB): (1) A logarithmic scale used to denote a change in the relative strength of an electric signal or acoustic wave. It is a standard unit for expressing the ratio between power and power level. An increase of +3 dB is a doubling of electrical (or signal) power; an increase of +10 dB is a doubling of perceived loudness. The decibel is not an absolute measurement, but indicates the relationship or ratio between two signal levels. (2) SPL (sound pressure level) can be measured in dB. 0 dB represents the threshold of normal human hearing, 130 dB represents the threshold for pain. Diaphragm: The part of a dynamic loudspeaker attached to the voice coil that moves and produces the sound. It usually has the shape of cone or dome. Diffusion: The scattering of sound. Diffusion reduces the sense of direction of sound source, a useful quality in surround speakers. Dispersion: The spreading of sound waves as it leaves a speaker. Displacement: The measurement of cubic volume that an item (such as a speaker or port) takes away from the internal volume of an enclosure, when designing an enclosure this figure must be added to the enclosure volume. Distortion: Any undesirable change or error in the reproduction of sound that alters the original audio signal or recording. Dome Tweeter: A high frequency speaker with a dome-shaped diaphragm, usually small in size. Dual Voice Coil (DVC): A voice coil with two windings, generally sub woofers. Each voice coil can be connected to a stereo channel, or both voice coils can be wired in parallel or series to a single mono channel. If connecting to stereo channels it is important that each channel have the same audio signal input so that 2 channels have the same output and both voice coils work in unison. Driver: A loudspeaker unit, consisting of the electromagnetic components of a speaker, typically a magnet and voice coil. Driver Parameters: The physical properties of a driver that determine it's electrical and acoustical behavior. Also called thiele small parameters. The minimum parameters used in determining speaker enclosures are Fs, Qts, and Vas. DSP: Standing for digital signal processing it is most commonly found in processing units to recreate or simulate a specific acoustic environment. Many older units used this technology to recreate venues like a concert hall or a disco club. Dust Cap: Part of the speaker that keeps foreign material from falling into the voice coil, which could hinder the speaker's movement and cut short its life. Dynamic Range: Expressed in decibels, the range of signals amplitude (from the loudest to the quietest) that can be reproduced effectively by a piece of equipment. With respect tp amplifiers, this range is defined by inherent noise at low levels and by overload distortion at high levels. The higher the number, the better the performance. E: EBP: Efficiency Bandwidth Product. A rating that helps a builder determine whether a driver is suitable for a sealed or ported enclosure. EBP of less than 45 indicates the driver should be used in a sealed, 45 - 65 indicates flexible design options, over 65 indicates best for a ported enclosure. This only gives us a general idea what type of box to use. With actual testing the subs, sometimes EBP does not prove 100% accurate. EBP = Fs/Qes. Efficiency Rating: The loudspeaker parameter that shows the level of sound output when measured at a prescribed distance with a standard level of electrical energy fed into the speaker. Electronic Crossover: Uses active circuitry to send signals appropriate drivers. This is more efficient than passive crossovers. Enclosure: The box that contains the driver(s). Equalizer: Electronic device used to boost or attenuate certain frequencies. F: F3: The roll-off frequency at which the driver's response is down 3dB's from the level of it's mid-band response, sometimes called the cutoff frequency. Fb: The tuned frequency of a ported box. Fc or Fcb: The system resonance frequency of a driver in a sealed box. Fs: The frequency of resonance for a driver in free air. Farad: The basic unit of capacitance. A capacitor has a value of one farad when it can store one coulomb of charge with one volt across it. Filter: Any electrical circuit or mechanical device that removes or attenuates energy at certain frequencies. Flat Response: The faithful reproduction of an audio signal; specifically, the variations in output level of less than 1 dB above or below a median level over the audio spectrum. Free Air Resonance: The natural resonant frequency of a driver when operating outside an enclosure. Frequency: The number of waves (or cycles) arriving at or passing a point in one second, expressed in hertz (Hz). Frequency Response: The frequency range to which a system, or any part of it, can respond. Unless a limit of variation in intensity is stated, this specification is meaningless. Full-range: A speaker designed to reproduce all or most of the sound spectrum. G: Golden Ratio: The ratio of the depth, width, and height of a speaker enclosure, based on the Greek Golden Rectangle. Usually recommended for home speakers, difficult to use in car audio applications. The ratio: W = 1.0, Depth = 0.618W, Height = 1.618W. Ground: Refers to a point of (usually) zero voltage, and can pertain to a power circuit or a signal circuit. In car audio, the single most important factor to avoid unwanted noise is finding and setting a good ground. H: Harmonic: The multiple frequencies of a given sound, created by the interaction of signal waveforms. Harmonic Distortion: Harmonics artificially added by an electrical circuit or speaker, and are generally undesirable. It is expressed as a percentage of the original signal. Heat Dissipation: The ability to transfer heat away from a component into the air to prevent damage to the speaker. Hertz (Hz): A measurement of the frequency of sound vibration. One hertz is equal to one cycle per second. High-pass Filter: An electric circuit that passes high frequencies but blocks low ones. Hiss: Audio noise that sounds like air escaping from a tire (high frequency). Horn: A speaker design using its own funnel shaped conduit to amplify, disperse, or modify the sounds generated by the internal diaphragm of the speaker. Hum: Audio noise that has a steady low frequency pitch I: Imaging: Listening term - it is the speakers ability to locate where each instrument or voice is located. Impedance: The opposition of a circuit or speaker to ac current. the combined effect of a speaker's resistance, inductance, and capacitance that opposes the current fed to it. It is measured in ohms and varies with the frequency of the signal. Inductance (L): the capability of a coil to store energy in a magnetic field surrounding it. It produces impedance to an AC current. Inductors are commonly used in audio as low pass crossovers. M: Midbass: Mid-level bass usually frequencies just above the sub-bass range from around 100Hz - 400Hz or so. Midrange (mids): The frequency range above bass but below treble carries most of the identifying tones of music or speech. It is usually from 300Hz - 400Hz to 3KHz or so. Millihenries (mH): A measurement of inductance. Mms: The moving mass of a driver assembly normally measured in grams (g). Mono: Monophonic sound. A method for reproducing sound where the signals from all directions or sources are blended into a single channel. MOSFET: (Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Field Effect Transistor) a form of field-effect transistor controlled by voltage rather than current, like a bipolar transistors. They generate almost no loss (little heat generation), which lends the power supply fast response, excellent linearity, and high frequency. N: n0: The reference efficiency of the system. Neodymium Magnet: A magnet material offering 7.5 times the magnetic strength of standard magnetic materials. Noise: Any undesirable sound reproduced in an audio system. Nominal Impedance: The minimum impedance a loudspeaker presents to an amplifier, directly related to the power the speaker can extract from the amplifier. O: Octave: A range of tones where the highest tone occurs at twice the frequency of the lowest tone. Ohm: A unit of electrical resistance or impedance. Ohm's Law: A basic law of electric circuits. It states that the current [1] (measured in amperes) in a circuit is equal to the voltage [E] in volts divided by the resistance [R] in ohms: I=E/R One Ohm Stability: Refers to an amplifier's ability to operate when wired to a speaker load that offers a 1 ohm impedance. Oscilloscope: An electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. Out of Phase: When your speakers are wired in reverse polarity (One speaker is wired one way, and another speaker is wired opposite of the first speaker). Bass response will be very thin due to cancellation. Output: The high level (speaker) or line level (RCA) signals sent from one system component to another, or the high level signal from an amplifier to the system speakers. P: P: Density of air at STP 1.18 kg/m^3 (rho). Pa: Acoustical power. Parallel: A method of wiring that lowers the total impedance of multiple voice coils when wired together. Pass Through: To pass a signal through without processing or changing the signal. Passive Crossover: Uses inductors (coils) and capacitors to direct proper frequencies to the appropriate drivers. these crossover systems can be simple (First Order 1 component @ -6dB/octave slope) to complex (Fourth Order = 4 components @ -24dB/octave slope). Passive Radiator: A device that looks just like an ordinary driver, except it has no magnet or voice coil. A radiator is usually a highly compliant device, with a similar cone material and surround found on regular active divers. The radiator must usually be at least as large (or larger) providing bass reinforcement for the driver in a similar fashion as any regular ported box. A clear advantage of the radiator is the absence of port noise and some audiophiles claim the radiator provides a better sounding bass than a ported enclosure Disadvantages include difficulty in tuning and the extra, required baffle area for the radiator. Most radiators can be tuned with either weights or silicone, adding material in a balanced manner until Fb is attained. PDM: (1) (Product Data Management) An information system used to manage the data for a product as it passes from engineering to manufacturing. The data includes plans, geometric models, CAD drawings, images, NC programs as well as all related project data, notes and documents. A PDM also manages the interrelationships between the data so that when changes are made to one database, the effects are highlighted in the others. PDMs are developed for work-groups as well as the entire enterprise. (2) (Pulse Density Modulation) A modulation technique that generates fixed-width pulses to represent the amplitude of an analog input signal. Like its variable-width pulse width modulation (PWM) cousin, the output switching transistor is on more of the time for a high-amplitude input signal and off more of the time for a low-amplitude signal. PDM is used for audio signals in a variety of applications from cellphones to SACD music format. See PWM and Class D amplifier. Pe: Driver's rated RMS power handling capability. Peak: The maximum amplitude of a voltage or current. Phase: Refers the timing relationship of two or more signals or sound waves. It's especially important to be sure that your stereo speakers are playing "in phase." This means that the drivers (cones and domes) of your right and left speakers are moving in and out at the same time. If your speakers are "out of phase" you'll hear significantly less bass, and instead of producing a strong center image, the sound tends to stay localized at the speakers. Phase Coherence: The relationship and timing of sounds that come from different drivers (subs, mids, tweets) mounted in different location in the vehicle. Phase Distortion: A type of audible distortion caused by time delay between various parts of the signal; can be cause by equalizers. PLM: (Product Life cycle Management) A comprehensive information system that coordinates all aspects of a product from initial concept to its eventual retirement. Sometimes called the "digital backbone" of a product, it includes the requirements phase, analysis and design stages, manufacturing, product launch, distribution, quality assurance, in-service maintenance and spare parts provisions. The terms PLM and PDM (product data management) are sometimes used interchangeably: however, PDM is typically only the data handling component of PLM. PLM also interfaces to the CRM and ERP systems within a company, which support the customer relationships, supply chain management and accounting. Following are the primary elements of a PLM system, all of which must interrelate with each other in order to provide the integration necessary to be a PLM system. Polarity: The orientation of magnetic or electric fields. The polarity of the incoming audio signal determines the direction of movement of the speaker cone. Must be observed when wiring speakers, so that they are "in phase." Ported Enclosure: A type of speaker enclosure that uses a duct or port to improve efficiency at low frequencies. Excellent design for lower power systems, as the port often adds up to 3dB's to low frequency efficiency. F3 can be set considerably lower with proper design, although low frequency roll-off is generally -24dB/octave. Good transient response with proper tuning, Fb, but source material or frequencies below Fb cause the driver to progressively perform as if it were not enclosed at all. Due to this, ported enclosures without a low frequency filter may have lower power handling compared to other designs. More difficult to properly build and tune than a driver. The best way to model these alignments is with a software program, where changes in tuning and enclosure size can be immediately noted. Power (P): The time rate of doing work or the rate at which energy is used. One equation for power is: P = Volts^2/Impedance Power Line Capacitor (Capacitor): Wired in-line on the power lead with your car amp, this device stores current for instant release when short bursts of energy are needed to produce loud, deep bass notes. Best to mount as close to amp as possible. Pressure Effect: In sealed box designs, the pressure build-up on one side of the cone which may cause non-linearity and inhibit dynamic range in the low bass. Push-Pull Configuration: One driver is mounted normally, the second is mounted so that it faces into the enclosure, both sharing the same internal volume and wired out of phase with one another. The drivers are acoustically in phase since they move in the same direction. This alignment theoretically reduces second order harmonic distortion. PWM: (Pulse Width Modulation) A modulation technique that generates variable-width pulses to represent the amplitude of an analog input signal. Like its fixed-width pulse density modulation (PDM) cousin, the output switching transistor is on more of the time for a high-amplitude signal and off more of the time for a low-amplitude signal. The digital nature (fully on or off) of the PWM circuit is less costly to fabricate than an analog circuit that does not drift over time. See PDM. Q: Q: The magnification of resonance factor of any resonant device or circuit. A driver with a high Q is more resonant than one with a low Q. Qa: The system's Q at Fb, due to absorption losses. Qec: The system's Q at (Fc), due to electrical losses. Qes: The electrical Q of the driver. QI: the system's Q at Fb, due to leakage losses. Qmc: The systems Q at resonance (Fc), due to mechanical losses. Qms: The mechanical Q of the driver. Qp: The system's Q at Fb, due to port issues (turbulence, viscosity, ect.). Qts: The total Q of the driver at Fs, Qts = Qes + Qms. Qtc: Value for the damping provided for a driver in a sealed enclosure. Denotes the enclosures ability to control the driver response at resonance. Qtc = 0.707 is the optimum value for sealed enclosures, providing flattest response and highest SPL for deep bass extension. Enclosures for this value are often rather large. Lower Qtc can give even better transition response, down to a Qtc of 0.577 for the best damping and transients, but the enclosure is usually huge and SPL's are down. A Qtc of 1.0 is a compromise between deep bass and transient response vs. smaller sized enclosure. Larger subs can go with an even higher Qtc, as their resonant frequency is often very low, but Qtc's above 1.5 can begin to sound very muddled and boomy, and sacrifice deep bass extension and transient response for enhanced mid-bass peaks (louder). R: Ras: Acoustical equivalent of Rms RCA: Also known as line level input, wires carry signals from your source unit to other processors such as an amp, EQ, crossover, line driver, etc. They can also be used from one processor to another. They carry higher signal strength than speaker wires, also known as high-level input. This means that you get a cleaner, stronger signal from unit to unit which helps increase the performance of your stereo. RCA's are the preferred method of wiring. Rear Fill: In auto-sound, the ambiance created by a pair of rear speakers that helps complete the sound-stage. A set of high quality components for the front powered by an external amp and a set of coax mounted on the rear deck powered by the head unit or small amp is a good example of a rear fill application. Rear fill speakers should be faded so that they create a richer ambiance, but you should not be able to isolate any sounds coming from them. Res: The electrical resistive equivalent of RMS. Resonance: The tendency of an object to vibrate most at a particular frequency. Resonance Frequency: The frequency at which you speaker tends to vibrate most at. Resistance (Re): In electrical or electronic circuits, a characteristic of a material that opposes the flow of electrons. Speakers have resistance that opposes current.__Revc: DC resistance of the voice coil only. Rg: Amplifier source resistance (includes leads, crossover, etc.). RMS: An acronym for "root mean square." Used in audio to help rate continuous power output of an amplifier or input capability of speakers. This is the preferred method for comparing anything in audio applications. R-off (cut-off): The attenuation that occurs at the lower or upper frequency range of a driver, network, or system. The roll-off frequency is usually defined as the frequency where response is reduced by -3dB's. S: S or (Q'): The overall damping of a 4th order bandpass enclosure. I,e., if you were to figure a 4th order bandpass enclosure with a Qtc of 0.707 for Vr (the sealed chamber), then you would also figure Vf (ported chamber) with an S of 0.707. SAF: Spouse Acceptance Factor. Satellite Speaker: A small speaker with limited bass response. It is normally intended to be used with a matching sub woofer. Sd: Effective piston area of a driver, Normally measured in meters squared (M^2). Sealed Enclosure: Air tight enclosure that completely isolates the back wave of the driver from the front. Very tight, defined sound (with Qtc = 0.707) with very good transition response and power handling. Low frequency roll-off is at -12dB/octave. Less efficient than other designs, and higher distortion levels at resonance. Easy to design and build. Originally this design was pioneered and marketed by companies like Acoustic Research. Sealed boxes are normally the best enclosure to use for sound quality applications. Series: A method of wiring that raises the total impedance of multiple voice coils when wired together. Series-Parallel: A method of wiring that contains elements from both wiring methods. Signal: The desired portion of electrical information. Signal-to-noise (S/N): The ratio, expressed in dB, between the signal and noise. Sine Wave: The waveform of a pure alternating current or voltage. It deviates between a zero point to a positive value and a negative value. Audio signals are sign waves or combinations of sine waves. Sound Pressure Level (SPL): An acoustic measurement for the ratios of sound energy. Rated in decibels (SPL dBA, SPL dBC). Sound Stage: The sound systems ability to recreate an imaginary stage. A good speaker will faithfully make the stage seem close to the actual height, width and depth of the actual performance stage where recorded. Imaging is similar, but the speaker must be able to place each instrument or voice in the correct location on the sound-stage. The reproduction of the way the music would sound if you were actually watching the musicians play in front of you. The stage should always appear to be in front of you, with a proper "image" of where each musician is playing on the imaginary sound-stage. Spider: The flexible material that supports the former and voice coil within the speaker frame. Standing Wave: A buildup of sound level at a particular frequency that is dependent upon the dimensions of a resonant room, car interior, or enclosure. It occurs when the rate of energy loss equals the rate of energy input into the system. This is what you hear when you listen into a seashell. Building a slant in a box on the back wall can help reduce standing sound waves. Strontium Magnet: A magnetic material with superior magnetic strength characteristics to that of ferrite. Sub woofer: A loudspeaker designed to reproduce bass frequencies. Subsonic Filter (Infrasonic): A filter designed to remove extremely low frequencies usually between 20Hz-50Hz or lower noise from the audio signal. This prevents the speakers from playing frequencies that could damage them. Surround: The outer suspension of a speaker cone; holds the diaphragm in place but allows it to move when activated. Usually made of foam or rubber. Surround Sound: Usually representative of the monophonic sound extracted from the stereo signal sent to small rear or side speakers used in a home theater. T: Timbre: The quality of a sound related to its harmonic structure. Timbre is what gives a voice or instrument its sonic signature -- why a trumpet and a saxophone sound different when they play the same note. Thiele/Small Parameters: Numbers that specify the behavior of drivers. These are normally tested by the manufacturer and are used in conjunction with computer programs to help design enclosures for drivers (normally sub woofers). These programs can normally estimate the response of a particular driver in a box to find the optimum enclosure type and size. Three Point: Positioned inside the sub, this is the name given to the area where the voice coil, cone and spider meet. Three-way: A type of speaker system composed of three ranges of speakers, specifically a woofer, midrange, and tweeter. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): A component specification which describes its ability to accurately reproduce a signal. Although lower numbers are considered to be better, the human ear typically cannot detect THD ratings below 2% or 3%. Transformer: An electrical device that can be used to provide circuitry isolation, signal coupling, impedance matching, or voltage step-up. Transient Response: The ability of a speaker to respond to any sudden change in the signal without blurring (smearing) the sound. A speaker that can react quickly to rapid changes in sound has "good transient response." Transistor: An active (commonly three terminal) solid state device in which a larger output current is obtained by small changes in the input current. Transmitter: The name given to the hand-held remote control unit used by a vehicle operator to arm/disarm and perform accessory functions on a vehicle security system. More commonly called a remote. Treble (highs): The upper end of the audio spectrum reproduced by tweeters, usually 3 - 4kHz and up. Tri-way Outputs: When a special passive crossover is used with an automotive amplifier to safely power a sub woofer in bridged mono (low pass circuit) as well as a pair of stereo speakers (high pass circuit). Normal inductors and capacitors can be used for Try-way output. This is how 3 channel mode should be accomplished with an amplifier. Tweeter: A speaker designed to reproduce the high or treble range of the sound spectrum. Two-way: A type of speaker system composed of two ranges of speakers usually a woofer and tweeter. V: Vab: The volume of air having the same acoustic compliance as the enclosures. Vas: The equivalent volume of compliance, which specifies a volume of air having the same compliance as the suspension system of a driver. Vb: Total box volume, usually in cubic feet or liters. Used specifically in sealed and ported designs. Vd: Maximum linear volume displacement of the driver (product of Sd times Xmax). Vf: Front volume of a bandpass design. Vr: Rear volume of a bandpass design. Voice Coil: The wire wound around the speaker former. The former is mechanically connected to the speaker cone and causes the cone to vibrate in response to the audio current in the voice coil. Volt (E): The term used to refer to the property of electrical pressure through a circuit. The basic practical unit of difference of potential. W: Watt: A unit of electrical power. A watt of electrical power is the use of one joule of energy per second. Watts of electrical power equals (volts) x (amperes). Wave: A single oscillation in matter (i.e., a sound wave). Waves move outward from a point of disturbance, propagate through a medium, and grow weaker as they travel farther. Wave motion is associated with mechanical vibration, sound, heat, light, etc. Waveform: The shape of a wave. Wavelength: The length of a sound wave in air. It can be found for any frequency by dividing the speed of sound in air (1120 feet per second) by the frequency of the sound, or: WL = 1120/freq. Windings: The wire in a voice coil that is wound around the former (also called a bobbin) to create a coil. Woofer: A large dynamic loudspeaker that is well suited for reproducing bass frequencies. Z: Z: Total driver impedance. Zero Bit Detection: A circuit in a D/A converter that monitors the digital audio bit stream. Upon encountering all bits low, or zero, the output of the D/A is disconnected from the preamp. This improves the signal-to-noise ratio specification. Zero Output: The absence of output signal or output power.
  6. 2 points
    We have now started the official Linear Power/Blues Car Audio Team Membership Program. Each member will receive 1. Blues/Linear Power T Shirt (5.00 upcharge for XXXL, 7.00 for bigger than this) 2. A Blues Car Audio Medium decal 3. A Linear Power Medium decal 4. A membership number The membership number will identify the team member and make them ilegible for special product give aways during the year, as well as, for any special promotions or discounts that may be offered. When we hit set milestones of membership numbers we will have a drawing to give away a product from Linear Power or Blues Car Audio. 5. A membership ID The membership ID card is to be kept on the member and will identify the team member at shows and events and give the member preferred access to any special events, dinners, or seminars that Linear Power or Blues may hold for its team members, contestants, or customers. We will also try to arrange that all team members get their vehicles grouped together at shows and events. 6. Highlighting team members system builds and contest wins on our website with pictures. 7. Recording and keeping a database of all team members e-mail address' and send membership news letters about special events, new products, are things of interest about Linear Power and Blues Car Audio. The cost of the team membership will be $50.00 per year and renewed annually. We look forward to your feedback! Thanks Ray Linear Power Inc./Blues Car Audio
  7. 2 points
    Thank you all for taking your time to help me. I have a few questions about equipment and setup. I am installing this equipment in a 97 grand marquis. most of the equipment I have is either old or given to me so please keep that in mind. I will be installing a jensen vm9512 I also have (4) 6.5 Earthquakes I was considering for the rear. I have a old polk Db i believe it 400w rms its in a sealed fiberglass box amps: mtx 102 hifonics zx-4000 clarions apa 450 pioneer gm7200 and a small jensen 18wx2 rms was considering using for tweeters in a component have access to a clarion dpx 2250 if needed as well I have been reading a lot and confused best way to set up the amps and speaker? I'm not sure which amp to what speakers is best. I have a few ideas but........ Also I'm having a really hard time deciding on speakers for the front doors? i was considering 5.25 such as: infinity reference 6032cf , polk db 5.25, mq quart dsh 213 or maybe even soundstream sst5.25 I been doing a lot of research and rattling my brain unfortunately I am on a budget and don't have someone where close by to listen to variety of different speakers. I promise not looking for the easy route by asking for help. Any advice or guidance would be greatly appreciated Thank in advance
  8. 2 points
    A few electronic updates! Yesterday I got my new Alpine 9886 installed, and today, I got half of my front stage amps in. 9886 Linear Power 302 (tweeters) Internal sex!!
  9. 2 points
    A match made in electronic heaven!
  10. 2 points

    The NEW Linear Power amps

    I'm sorry to say they won't be that cheap, but compared to the prices of the other SQ amps on the market (Zapco, Tru Technology, Focal, Mosconi, Audison) we will be considerablly cheaper but with better electrical engineering and parts. We have already had the prototypes reviewed by several different people that have tested our prototpyes against several of these brands in a direct comparison, and our amps came out on top. Most of these brands have a retail price tag of $1499.00 - $1699.00 USD for a 110 x 2 to a 150 x 2 amp, one even has stages of mods that only bring their amp up to near what we do in our normal production amp and that raised the price of their amp another $1100.00 for a total of $2600.00, As well as, the other amp's power ratings are derived from 14.4-14.5 battery volts, at 1K Hz sine wave, at 1.0% THD. Our power ratings are derived from 12 volts at 20 Hz at less than .08% THD, so your buying an even bigger amp from us than their so called power rating.
  11. 2 points

    Various pictures of our work

    Raised logos
  12. 2 points

    Various pictures of our work

    Basic enclosure builds
  13. 2 points

    First build in old F100

    Got the box done and installed today! still have to get ports though and a few other things for securing the box.
  14. 2 points

    sound quality

    What the heck ... Here's one more ... enjoy ...
  15. 2 points

    sound quality

    How bout one more ...
  16. 2 points

    sound quality

    Here is some more ...
  17. 2 points
    as said in the topic im wondering if it is even posible to ad this to this car, all i know abaout it is that is an 09 golf stv sport "edition"(?) with disel and automatic, fairly good equiped. so as i where almost done with the build in my last car (that got scrapped 4 houers prior to the build where finished) i have an itch in my hands to do somthing in the new car. but as it have an built in handsfree system and probably ok sound system it would be cool (if posible) to showcase the amp and soundfilters in the back.. i am realy anxious to know whats posible and not with this car at all..
  18. 2 points
    Some of the before/after pics of some of the sound deadening done. The deadening was done in stages through the years. Front doors first, took a weekend to do. Rear doors the next weekend. Rear wall the next. Floor a couple of years later. Roof was done when I put in the Alpine flip down monitor for the kids. Pics scattered around on several hard drives (some crashed). Floor Back wall Front door Rear door Roof Addition treatments have been done to the floors, back wall and doors, but no pics on this computer. I'll put them up later.
  19. 2 points
  20. 2 points
    Just a quick poser shot for everyone to ogle. Pay close attention to what's on this table. The urban legend sneaks out of hiding.
  21. 2 points

    Linear Power

    Hi guys, I'm Ray from Linear Power, I have been with Linear Power for 28 years, and I now own the joint. I am also the President of TIPS Inc. which does warranty/service work on many brands of car audio equipment, including factory authorized service for Pioneer, Kenwood, Clarion, JVC and Panasonic. I have been in car audio since 1975 when I started installing stereo equipment at a local shop. I then managed a local retail store before going to work for the regional independant marketing company out of Oklahoma for Kicker and Linear Power at the time. During that time I designed, and ran a stereo contest in the Texas, Arkansas, La., and Ok. area called Power Wars, this was in the day when George Reed was running Thunder on Wheels contests for Rockford Fosgate. This was all in the early 80's. After working for David Lee Marketing, I went on to do contract work with Linear Power at the same time I was working for Stillwater Designs (Kicker) as head of R&D and designing the original Kicker Competition Separates. I left Kicker in the late 80's and did design work for one of the original founders of Kicker, Don Mitchell, who started Richmond Hill Corp and made Blues speakers originally. In addition I have built many factory demo vehicles and some of the largest and loudest car stereos for their time. 1980 Ford Mustang with 8 -15 inch subwoofers,(1983) Astro van with 9-18 inch subwoofers(1989), Linear Power Breadtruck (1998), multiple vehicles for Kicker, and a few national winners for customers. I built big systems but they all had to sound good too, we were not building at that time for just SPL. At this same time (1989) I started TIPS Inc(Technical Information and Product Services) as a service company. This is what I have been doing for the past 21 years until I decided enough was enough and made my mind up to bring some REAL American products back to the market. We have re-introduced the Blues speaker line under the Linear Power company and we are making them better than they ever were before, and they rival or exceed the best sounding speakers on the market today. We are in the works with the ORIGINAL Linear Power engineer who has spent the last 12 years or so at Kicker as their head engineer to build a better Linear Power amp than we ever had before. Jeri McCord left Kicker in Oct. 2009 and has devoted his full time in working with me on re-developing the new line of Linear Power. Don't worry folks, its going to be the same old Linear Power philosophy just BETTER. Everything will be made in the USA and designed and engineered totally in house by us. The Blues speakers started shipping about 3 weeks ago(June 15th 2010)and they have been received very well. We had prototype equipment being used by a select few people in the contest arena for a little over a year now, in that time we have placed 1st or 2nd at every local or regional event, and the few times we placed second was only to one of our own vehicles for first, with only one exception so far where another brand actually placed first. We had one SQ entry in USACi World Finals last year using early prototype and 20 year old Blues product and Linear Power amps and he placed 4th in the world. He had as little as 5000.00 in his whole system and beat out systems worth over 40,000. From that time to current we have gathered over 40 trophies with as few as 5 vehicles competing, with most of those trophies being won by the first two vehicles that got built. So car audio has been a minimum of 35 years of my life to this point, I don't really see changing. We hope to meet a lot of nice and interesting people on this site, and are willing to help with your questions in any way, about our products, or any general audio questions that we can help with.
  22. 2 points

    Installing a new skin.

  23. 2 points

    Cablguy184's 1997 Chevy Silverado

    Pioneer Head unit, Linear Power PA2 Audiopath and X03 Crossover. Blues Car Audio 6.5 component set in custom A pillars and kick pannels. Code Alarm - New York Series - Alarm System.
  24. 2 points
  25. 2 points
    An amplifier does not output dc if it is working good. It will always output AC. Your theory with the lightbulb is ridiculous. Lightbulbs do not care about polarity connection so if you flick a switch on and off in a DC circuit it will act the same as if it is connected to an AC power supply. The amplifier section is supplied with DC and it produces AC. It will never produce DC at the output. You can use a resistor in AC. Its impedance will vary based on how it is built (inductance) and the frequency of the signal. I'm not sure if you are joking or not but that is stupid. You connected a 12v dc bulb to the wall outlet and expected it not to blow ? Please use better english and punctuation when typing. Makes it easier to understand what you are saying and easier to discuss.